Articles

Nitin H.P.

Concept of Yaksha & Yakshi in Jainism
The only goal of Jainism is to conquer ourselves from worldly sufferings, inner passions and attain liberation. As per Jainism Jina/Arihanta/Tirthankara is a liberated soul that is freed of the worldly sufferings and inner passions and reside in the top of the world called as Siddhaloka. The Jains worship these Jinas/Arihantas/Tirthankaras due of the following reasons: As they have liberated themselves by conquering their inner passions and attained moksha, they have expounded the path of liberation and to get an inspiration to attain their state.

It is believed that Yaksha and Yakshi’s were entrusted by Indra to look after the well being of Tirthankaras. Jains believe that the Tirthankaras are looked after by the Yaksha and Yakshi’s. Usually they are found in pairs flanking the Tirthankara idol with the Yaksha on the right and Yakshi on the left as guardian deities. They are regarded as the devotees of the Jinas with supernatural powers. They are also referred to as the Shasanadevatas and Shasanadevis. The Jains worship them for providing protection to the Tirthankaras.

They are believed to go through the cycles of birth and deaths just like any other worldly souls but have supernatural powers. As the Jinas are liberated from the worldly sufferings they cannot reward the worship of devotees. As already mentioned the Yaksha and Yakshi’s are known to have supernatural power and are known for bestowing upon the devotees and fulfilling their desires. Hence for immediate returns a section of the Jains looked at them and gave them a place in the temple. Some of them were known for bestowing worldly desires such as boon for children, wealth, etc and hence the concept of Yaksha and Yakshi’s became very popular in Jainism.

Goddess Padmavati
Goddess Padmavati is the Yakshi of Lord Parshwanath, the 23rd Tirthankara of Jainism. She along with Dharanendra Yaksha protected Lord Parshwanath from Kamata’s upasarga.

Decorated idol of Goddess Padmavati, Padmavati Temple, Hombuja.Goddess Padmavati, Padmavati Temple, Hombuja.

She is known for protecting her devotees from many problems. The story of Goddess Padmavati protecting Vanamale’s husband owing to her devotion & protecting King Jinadattaraya from many of his problems are some of the related stories.

Mythological Story Related to Hombuja Padmavati
Hombuja has a mythological story attached to it. It starts with Jinadatta, the prince of Mathura. He had fled to south India leaving his home town due to family reasons. He meets the Jain monk Muni Siddhantakeerthi and according to his guidance he carried the idol of Godess Padmavati on the horse back and wandered the southern parts of India. When he reached Hombuja he decided to stay over night at this place under the shelter of a Lakki tree. He dreamt an inspiration from Goddess Padmavati to install the idol over here and that he will get all the support from the localites and the Goddess mentioned to him that she will be staying over there. She further instructed him that when iron is touched to the feet of the Padmavati idol it will be converted into gold and by the wealth gained through this means he can convert the place into a town and make it his capital. The next day he decided to construct a temple dedicated to Goddess Padmavati and Lord Parshwanath. He further moved ahead with establishing his capital at Hombuja. His Guru Siddanthakeerthi and his mother setteled at Hombuja along with him. Further he married the princess Manoradhini of the Kingdom of South Mathura.

Later he continued ruling the kingdom happily without any hassles. After a few years Goddess Padmavati wanted to test Jinadatta’s devotion and hence created two pearls (called as Muttu in Kannada) situated at a pond located a few meters away from the temple. Since then this pond is called as Muttina Kere (Kere means tank in Kannada). Of the two pearls one of them was pure and the other was eroded a bit. One of persons in the kingdom who found the pearls handed them over to the king. The King got two nose rings made of pearls. He gave a ring with the pure pearl to his wife and offered the other ring with the eroded pearl to the Goddess.

But when he visited the temple, he was astonished to find the ring with the pure pearl on the Goddess. At this point he heard a divine voice of Goddess Padmavati, saying that the idol will loose its divine power of converting the iron into gold and will fall into the well besides the temple. At this juncture Jinadattaraya realized his mistake and pleaded the Goddess for forgiveness. In response to this the divine voice mentioned that he should install another idol at that place and promised with the following things/incidents so that the existence of Goddess Padmavati was felt:

  • The Lakki tree will never dry
  • The Muttina Kere will never dry
  • The water will be constantly oozing out from the point of origin of river Kumudvati
  • Whenever a devote asks for blessings from Goddess Padmavathi, the flowers will fall from the right side of the idol.

Nitin H.P.

Tirthankar
In Jainism, a Tirthankar (“Fordmaker or Propagator”; also Tirthankara or Jina) is a human being who achieves enlightenment (perfect knowledge) through asceticism and who then becomes a role-model teacher for those seeking spiritual guidance. A Tirthankar is a special sort of arihant, who establishes the fourfold religious order consisting of monks, nuns, laymen and laywomen after achieving omniscience. Every Tirthankar revitalises the Jain order. A Tirthankar is so called because he is the founder of a “Tirth” (literally, ‘ford’), a Jain community which acts as a “ford” across the “river of human misery”.

Tirthankar Parshwanath
Parshwanath (c. 877–777 BCE) or Pārśva, Pārśvanātha, or is the twenty-third Tirthankar in Jainism. He is the earliest Jain Tirthankar who is accepted historically.

Main Deity, Lord Parshwanth, Parshwanath Temple, Hombuja.Lord Parshwanath, Parshwanath Temple, Hombuja.

In Jainism though all the Tirthankara idols look alike they are identified through their symbols. Like wise Lord Parshwanath is identified with the symbol of a snake and usually we find hoods of a naga (snake deity) above the idol shading the head. This nāga usually has three, seven or eleven heads. Dharanendra Deva and Goddess Padmavati are Yaksha and Yakshi to the 23rd Tirthankara Lord Parshwananth. Similar to Lord Parshwanath we can find snake hoods above the head of Dharanendra Yaksha and Padmavathi Yakshi. The Yaksha Dharanendra and the Yakshi Padmavati are often shown flanking him.

Legend Related to Lord Parshwanath, Yaksha Dharanendra & Yakshi Padmavati
Parshwanath was walking one day when he saw an old man next to a fire. With a special type of knowledge called Avdhignan he could tell that a pair of snakes was in one of the logs in the fire. He quickly warned the man that he was burning the snakes, but instead of acting rapidly to save them, the man became angry at Parshwanath and denied the presence of the snakes. Parshavanath pulled out the right log and put it out, then gently split it, revealing two badly burned snakes. He recited the Namokara Mantra, a prayer, for them before they died. The two nagas reincarnated to become the two Yakshas, Dharanendra and Padmavati.

The below table gives out a brief overview of the important aspects related to Lord Parshwanath –

Father’s Name: Vishwasena
Mother’s Name: Vamadeva
Body Colour: Green
Birth Place: Kashi
Family of Birth: Ugra
Symbol: Snake
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Life Span: 100 years
Height: 9 hands
First Person to Donate Food: Dhyanaambhara
Period of Medidation: 4 months
Omniscience attained under the tree:  
Ganadhara: Swyambhu and other 10 members
No. of Muni’s During Samavasarana: 16000
No. of Aryikas During Samavasasarana: 38000
No. of Shravaka’s During Samavasarana: 164000
No. of Shravika’s During Samavasarana: 377000
Chief Aryika: Sulochana
Chief Listener: Ajitha
Yaksha: Dharanendra
Yakshi: Padmavathi
Place of Attaining Salvation: Sammedagiri Suvarnabhadrakuta
Day of Garbha Kalyan: Vaishaka Krishna 2
Day of Janma Kalyana: Pushya Krishna 11
Day of Diksha Kalyana: Pushya Krishna 11
Day of Kevala Jnana Kalyana: Chaitra Krishna 4
Day of Nirvana Kalyana: Shravana Shukla 7, Mukuta Sapthami

Jainism is one of the ancient religions of India. One presumes that it already existed in similar form as of today in the 6th century B.C. Most probably, it was propounded by Parshwanatha and was reformed and built into a closed system by Vardhamana Mahavira, a contemporer of Gautama Buddha. Though the Jainas are spread all over India, their main concentrations are in Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Rajasthan.

Jaina, as the followers of the religion call themselves, is derived from the Sanskrit word jina, ‘conqueror’, a title attached to revered beings of this religion who have conquered the world of passions by their own strenuous efforts; in other words, who have obtained perfect knowledge and absolute freedom from the bondage of karma. .It specially refers to the Tirthankara, the one who has built a passage through the ocean of births, meaning the teachers of this religion. Sometimes Tirthankara is also understood to mean the founder of the four tirthas or the orders of the monks, the nuns, the male lay-followers and the female lay-followers. Jains believe that there were 24 such Tirthankaras of which Vrishabhanatha or Adinatha was the first who is supposed to have lived in the mythical past and Mahavira the last who lived 2500 years ago. Historically only the existence of Mahavira is traceable and that of Parshwanatha may be inferred. Mahavira was born under the name of Vardhamana as the son of Siddhartha, a local chief of Vaishali in modern Bihar. As a child he displayed special qualities of body and mind and therefore earned for himself the title of Mahavira, the great hero. At a young age he renounced the world and wandered around as a monk and attained Kevalagnana the highest enlightenment, when he was 42. Thereafter he went about the country as an enlightened preacher and gave a new structure to the order of monks and won for himself innumerable lay-followers. Mahavira’s path was that of severe asceticism and detachment from worldly objects, relations and sentiments. He followed it with extreme strictness and with out compromise unlike the middle path of the Buddha. At the age of 72 he breathed his last and attained Nirvana the final liberation.

The essential teachings of Mahavira were canonised only in the 3rd century B.C. and were put in the written form several centuries later. It is said that after Mahavira’s death there was a famine in the region of Bihar which was the main centre of his followers. Under the leadership of Bhadrabahu a large group of monks left Bihar and migrated to Karnataka. Sthulibhadra, another leader of the group, however, stayed back in Magadha. The former who stuck to the strict regulation of nudity and prescribed methods of begging and eating food became known as ‘Digambara’, the sky-robed, and the latter who continued to live under famine conditions and changed their ways became known as ‘Swetambara’, white robed.

The swethambara Jainas are found above all in Gujarat and Rajasthan. They are divided into two sub-sects, namely Dervasi worshipping the idol in temple and Sthanakavasi worshipping their teachers in a monastery. The Digambaras who lived mainly in Central and South India are divided into ‘Terapanthi’ and ‘Bisapanthi’ sub sects. They differ from each other in the observance of rituals.

The Jains are also divided into various castes though the rules of caste-endogamy and inter caste relations are not very strictly followed. Within the community the Jains also maintain the traditional affiliation to a certain line of monks (gaccha). Several lineages of monks exist side by side without any order of hierarchy.

According to Jainism the soul which possesses infinite knowledge controls actions and perceives pleasure and pain through bodily agencies. Liberation from the material body and worldly activity which are the sources of misery could be attained by destroying desire and attachment by following the path of discipline and penance. One of the basic ethical principles of Jainism is ahimsa, not to violate any form of life and aparigraha, non-possession. In order to avoid injury to living organisms, professions such as agriculture, animal-husbandry, etc. are prohibited for the Jains. Occupations involving less mobility such as those of merchants are more suitable to them. Due to this reason the Jains own large business-houses connected with textiles, grains, machinery and capital investment. It is ironical that Jains who hold the principle of aparigraha in high esteem should have amassed great wealth and should have become one of the wealthiest communities in India. Cities like Ahmedabad are full of Jain merchant aristocracy who, along with Parsees, understood relatively early the importance of the textile industry and became wealthy in the years of its foundation. Other industries which are at least partly owned by Jains are the chemical industry, the paper industry, newspapers, precious metals, Jewellery and banking. Most of the middle-class Jains are accountants, bank-employees or petty shopkeepers; rarely laborers or craftsmen.

Historically, Jainism found patronage of early rulers like Chandragupta Maurya, Asoka, Kharavela of Kalinga, etc. With their help and support the religion spread outside Bihar upto Mathura, Orissa and Karnataka. In the medieval era the rulers of Gujarat were great patrons of Jainism and it was due to them that some of the most remarkable monuments of the faith came into being. Under the patronage of Solanki rulers, Siddharaja and Kumarapala, flourished the great Jaina teacher and scholar Hemachandra Acharya.

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Postal Address:

Sri Jain Math,
Hombuja Post, Shimoga District,
Karnataka, India,
Pincode – 577 436

Phone Lines:
Sri Jain Math – +91 08185 262722.

Gurudeva

Sri Kshetra Hombuja publishes ‘Gurudeva’ a Jain monthly to publicise its activites & Jainism related news and articles amongst the members of the Jain community and others.

This is published under the guidance of His Holiness Swasti Sri Deevendrakeerthi Bhataraka Swamiji the pontiff of Sri Kshetra Hombuja and is edited by Dr.Amruth Malla. 

Gurudeva Subscription Details

  • Annual Subscription – Rs. 100
  • Life time Subscription – Rs. 1001
  • Patron – Rs. 5000

Address for remitting amount to ‘Gurudeva’:

‘Gurudeva’ Office, Sri Jain Math,
Hombuja Post, Shimoga District,
Karnataka, India, Pincode – 577 436

Siddantha Keerthi Grantha Mala

Sri Jain Math, Hombuja under the guidance of His Holiness Swasti Sri Deevendrakeerthi Bhataraka Swamiji has been publishing books related to Jainism regularly with an intention of propagating Jainism & Kannada literature.

Below is a list of publications of Siddantha Keerthi Grantha Mala 

Sl. No.

Title & Author

Price in Rs.

1.

Ratnakara Vybhava – Prof. G. Brahmappa

100

2.

Vardhamana Charite

30

3.

Arhadrushti

30

4.

Parshwanath Tirtthankar Stuti

15

5.

Chinnara Chetana

15

6.

Shrutavataram Itihasa – Dr.M.D.Vasantharaj

60

7.

Bhaktamara Stuti

4

8.

Samayika Patha

4

9.

24 Tirthankar Stuti

24

10.

Deepavali – Padmashri

666

11.

Aradhana Darpanam- Jwalini Amma

50

12

Jaya Vardhamana

15

13

Sammedha Shikarjiya Darshana

15

14

Panchakalyana Vybhava

9

15

Laghu Vrutti – Dr. Hampana

50

16

Jeeva Sambhodanam – B.S.Sannaiah

100

17

Sachitra Hombuja – Dr. Hampana

100

18

Hombuja Shasanagalu – Dr.Hampana

100

19

Sri Padmavati Mahatmya – Keshava Bhatt

100

20

Parshwanatha Charite – Pa Nagarajaiah

60

21

Mahavira Charite – Pa Nagarajaiah

50

22

Purushatra Siddyupaya – Padmanabaiah Bhuvanahalli

50

23

Ashtapahuda – M.B.Patil

80

24

Samayasara – M.B.Patil

80

25

Chutukagalu – Dharmashri

3

26

Shravakara Nitya Niyama

2

27

Gommatasara – Late Ratnamma Hegde

20

28

Vratadhara – Late Ratnamma Hegde

20

29

Mahapurana – Prof. G.Brahmappa

120

30

Harivamsha Purana – Prof. G.Brahmappa

35

31

Bhaktamara Stotra: Deepika, Aradhana

60

32

Sri Mahaviracharya Ganita Sarasangraha – Dr.Padmavatamma

1000

 

English Books

 

33

A Foreign tour and Jainism Abroad:L.D.Ballal

55

34

Indra in Jaina Iconography – Dr.Hampana

200

35

Jaina Parshwa temples in Karnataka – Dr.Hampana

150

 

 

 

 

Books on Hombuja by other Publishers

 

36

Hombuja Kshetra*  – Pandit K Bhujabali Shastri
Publishers: India Book House, Bangalore

1.50

37

Hombuja Kshetra Anusandhana – Dr.Hampana
Publishers: Vikranta Prakshana, N0. 30/1, D.V.G.Road, Basavanagudi, Bangalore – 560004

250

*Book is out of print

For copies of the books please get in touch with the Hombuja Jain Math on +91 08185 262721/22.

Tirthakshetras and Institutions under Sri Kshetra Hombuja
  • Hombuja Atishaya Srikshetra – Hosanagara Taluk, Shimoga District.
  • Kundadri Atishaya Srikshetra – Tirthahalli Taluk, Shimoga District.
  • Varanga Atishaya Srikshetra – Karkala Taluk, Udupi District.
  • Hattiyangadi Srikshetra – Kundapura Taluk, Udupi District.
  • Shravana Basadi – Karkala Taluk, Udupi District.
  • Sri Kunda Kunda Vidya Peetha – Hosanagara Taluk, Shimoga District.
  • Sri Siddanthakeerthi Granthamala – Hosanagara Taluk, Shimoga District.
  • Sri Padmamda Higher Primary School – Varanga, Karkala Taluk, Udupi District.
  • Sri Vardhaman Boys Hostle – Shimoga Taluk, Shimoga District.
  • Sri Sanmathi Boys Hostle – Sagar Taluk, Shimoga District.
  • Goshaala – Hombuja, Hosanagara Taluk, Shimoga District.
  • ‘Gurudeva’, religious Kannada monthly – Hombuja, Hosanagara Taluk, Shimoga District.
Below are the list of poojas performed at Sri Kehetra Hombuja. Devotees can get in touch with the Jain Mutt to perform the poojas & related please call Hombuja Jain Math on +91 08185 262721/22.

Sl. No.

Details of Pooja/Offering

Amount in Rs.

1.

Panchamrutha Abhisheka to Lord Parshwanath

100

2.

Panchamrutha Abhisheka to Lord Neminath

100

3.

Panchamrutha Abhisheka to Goddess Padmavati

100

4.

Panchamrutha Abhisheka to Goddess Saraswati

100

5.

Ksherabhisheka (Abhisheka by Milk with offering)

80

6.

Mahanaivedya Pooja

250

7.

Varaha Pooja

150

8.

Panchakallaya Pooja

80

9.

Exclusive Prasada Offering

100

10.

Saree Offering

60

11.

Udi Offering

50

12.

Saharsanama Pooja to Tirthankar

100

13.

Saharsanama Pooja to Goddess Padmavati

100

14.

Special decoration to Goddess Padmavati

1000

15.

Navakalasha Abhisheka

400

16.

24 Kalasha Abhisheka

800

17.

54 Kalasha Abhisheka

1200

18.

108 Kalasha Abhisheka

2500

19.

Vratopadesha

500

20.

Upanayana Samskara (Thread Ceremony)

1000

21.

Chowla Karma

500

22.

Tulabhara Seva (with Rice & Coconut)

500

23.

Tulabhara Seva (with Gold & Silver)

1008

24.

Kanakabhisheka

50

25.

Offering to One Lakh Flowers Offering

500

26.

Offering to Lakshadeepotsava (One Lakh deepas) Offering

201

27.

Kumkum Archana

100

28.

Panchakajjaya Pooja to Jattingaraya (Kshetrapala)

200

29.

Special Decoration to Jattingaraya (Kshetrapala)

100

30.

Hejje Namaskara (Kadamvari Namaskar)

50

31.

Namakarana (Naming Ceremony)

2000

32.

Karnavedana

50

33.

Funds for Tyagi Seva

201

34.

Aksharabyasa Intitation

250

35.

Hannu Kai Pooja (fruits and coconut pooja)

100

36.

Marriage Offering

5000

37.

Anna Prashana

100

38.

Hannu Kai Offering (fruits & coconut Offering)

5

39.

Vehicle Pooja

100

40.

Nandadeepa (includes 1 box oil for 4 months)

2000

41.

Bruhat Navagraha Shanthi

6000

42.

Sri Bruhat Kalikundala Yantra Vradhana

5000

43.

Sri Bruhat Padmavati Aradhana

5000

44.

Special Swarna Alankara (Gold decoration) to Goddess Padmavati
(Only on special festival days)

5000

Hombuja/Humcha is an ancient Jain Heritage Centre in the Shimoga district of Karnataka, with its history dating back to the 7th century A.D. The city was established by Jinadattaraya a devotee of Goddess Padmavati. It is the most popular of all the Padmavathi shrines in the world. It remained as the capital of the Santhara kingdom till the end of 12th century and was ruled by many other rulers over the centuries. It houses the ancient Bhattarakha Peetha with Jagadguru His Holiness SwastiSri Devendrakerthi Bhattaraka Swamiji as its pontiff.
WWW.HOMBUJAPADMAVATI.ORG is the official website of Hombuja Jain Math. This website is aimed at giving the first hand information about the activities at Sri Kshstra Hombuja and authentic information about the history and temples of Hombuja.